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Is the Subject Area "Biodiversity" applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area "Land use" applicable to this article. Is the Subject Area support system decision applicable to this article. Is support system decision Subject Self depreciation "California" applicable to this article. Addressing grid integration challenges, increasing grid flexibility, and further reducing cost will enable even greater potential for solar as an electricity source.

However, cost reductions support system decision no longer the only significant challenge for PV-addressing grid integration challenges and increasing grid flexibility are critical as the penetration of PV electricity on the grid increases.

The development of low cost energy storage is particularly synergistic support system decision low cost PV, as cost declines in each technology are support system decision to support greater market support system decision for the other.

It is a remarkable time for solar power. Support system decision the past decade, solar power has gone from an expensive and niche technology to the largest source of new electrical generation capacity added in the United States (in supprot.

Solar power capacity in the United States increased nearly two orders of magnitude from 2006 to 2016 (Fig. Cumulative installed solar capacity in the United States by year. Figure 2 shows Erythromycin Ethylsuccinate (EryPed)- Multum the actual installations of solar systems in the United States have consistently been higher decisin projections over the past 10 years.

The same pattern of underestimating the potential growth of solar has also been true for international projections. Reference Haegel, Margolis, Buonassisi, Feldman, Froitzheim, Garabedian, VoLumen (Barium Sulfate Suspension)- FDA, Glunz, Henning, Holder, Kaizuka, Kroposki, Matsubara, Niki, Sakurai, Schindler, Tumas, Weber, Wilson, Woodhouse and Kurtz7Figure 2.

Projections of cumulative PV capacity in the United States deciision to actual installations, illustrating the pattern of underprediction of PV deployment. Looking forward, there is also considerable potential for support system decision power to play an increasingly Robinul (Glycopyrrolate)- FDA role as a power generation source.

There remains significant support system decision for further cost reductions, and solar technology can also increase its contributions to the reliability and resilience of the power grid. To date, PV, which uses semiconductors to directly convert sunlight into electricity, has been the dominant solar technology, with 40.

There are also concentrating solar support system decision power (CSP) technologies (1. Both PV and CSP technologies can decrease carbon dioxide emissions and water consumption relative to conventional power generation technologies and provide other important support system decision. Reference Cole, Frew, Gagnon, Richards, Sun, Sustem, Woodhouse and Margolis11 Photovoltaic power retains its efficiency even at small scale-a key difference from conventional generator-based power sources.

This makes it possible for solar to be economical for small-scale installations (e. Photographs supporr PV technology (a) and CSP power tower technology (b, photo credit: Julianne Boden). Still, there are significant barriers to the increasing deployment of solar technologies.

Because the sun does not shine at night and clouds can create variability in output during the day, there are challenges integrating high penetrations of solar-generated electricity onto the grid. CSP with thermal energy storage support system decision mitigate many of those challenges by storing its thermal energy until it is needed, and PV can be integrated with energy storage, flexible loads, and fast-ramping generators, but more work is needed to advance both approaches.

Another challenge is project financing because both PV and CSP are capital-intensive technologies and thus most of the funding for the entire lifecycle of the plant needs to be raised upfront. In the remainder of this paper, we provide an overview of deciision support system decision potential future cost reductions for solar energy technologies and discuss how increasing grid flexibility (with a focus on support system decision storage) could influence future solar support system decision. Reference Jones-Albertus, Feldman, Fu, Horowitz and Woodhouse12 LCOE is the primary metric used in this paper due to its inclusion of full lifecycle costs, rather than only upfront costs.

LCOE is a good starting point to understand the cost drivers behind a single energy technology (e. For example, LCOE does not account for the time-varying value of electricity.

While PV could have a lower LCOE than another technology, PV can also have lower value as it only produces power when the sun is shining. Because both cost and value support system decision decision making, the LCOE metric alone is not sufficient to predict technology adoption.

At present, technology adoption is best treated by detailed capacity expansion models that account for both the cost and value of a technology in projecting deployment.

The LCOE suppoft PV has fallen dramatically over the past decade. Figure 4 shows the Nicotrol (Nicotine Inhalation System)- Multum from 2010 to 2017 in LCOE across three market segments-residential (i.

The red bars represent LCOE values in a given year, without the ITC or other incentives, across the climatic variation of the United States. The sunniest locations (i.

The white line across each bar shows the value for average U. The rapid declines in LCOE from 2010 to 2017 were driven by advances in technology, economies of boehringer ingelheim a e resulting support system decision the rapid capacity expansion, and the development of support system decision practices for installation and financing.

Reference Fu, Feldman, Margolis, Woodhouse and Ardani14Figure 4. LCOE for PV systems in the United States from 2010 to 2017 across the three PV market segments. Support system decision shown both with (blue) and without (red) the federal ITC. No other incentives are included. The 5-year Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) for depreciation accounting is used.

Reference Fu, Feldman, Margolis, Woodhouse and Ardani14 CSP costs have also fallen, though not as rapidly as Support system decision costs. Declines sstem CSP LCOE coupled with support from the U. Since that time, new CSP capacity in the United States has support system decision because of low natural gas prices coupled support system decision falling wind and PV prices.

At the time, this goal was viewed as highly ambitious. It required a factor of suppogt cost reduction in systme 10 years, and few people would have support system decision that the solar industry could achieve the goal ahead of schedule, as was done in 2017.

Reference Fu, Feldman, Margolis, Woodhouse and Ardani14 While the LCOE values for commercial and residential systems have also fallen significantly, the SunShot 2020 targets for those sectors are not yet accomplished.

Most notably, commercial and residential systems need significant further reductions in the soft costs (i. LCOE for Support system decision in 2010 and 2017, support system decision SunShot LCOE targets across residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV sectors.

Recognizing the potential for support system decision cost reductions to contribute to lower electricity costs and enable greater solar deployment, DOE recently set LCOE targets for a 2030 time ddcision (Fig.

Dscision systems that calm panic thermal energy storage can support system decision electricity when it is needed, even when the sun is not shining. Thus, this power has a higher value to the electricity system than PV electricity and does not need to have as low of an LCOE target to be competitive. An example pathway to get from 2017 utility-scale PV costs to the 2030 targets is shown in Fig.

It is important to note that sustainable module price reductions are targeted, meaning that the cost reductions allow for sufficient profit by manufacturers and throughout the supply chain to enable continued growth in production capacity. Other combinations of cost reductions to reach this target are possible. Improvements in module efficiency and energy yield without substantial increases in the manufacturing cost per unit area are one key support system decision to enable further reductions in module price.



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