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The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Gogol is a humorist with few peers. His sdhd, like "The Overcoat" and "The Nose," sdhd play The Inspector General, and his novel, Dead Sdhd, expose both the petty bureaucratic corruption of the nineteenth century Russian civil service, but strike a deeper chord at the problem of human vanity. After Gogol came Leskov, Ivan Turgenev, Saltykov-Shchedrin, and Goncharov.

Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky are widely considered among the greatest novelists in the world. At sdhd close of sdhd century Anton Chekhov helped to introduce realism into the short story genre and into drama, becoming arguably the finest short story writer and leading dramatist internationally of his period. Other important nineteenth century developments included Ivan Krylov the fabulist; the literary criticism sdhd Vissarion Belinsky and Herzen; playwrights such as Griboedov and Ostrovsky and Kozma Prutkov (a collective pen name) the satirist.

The Silver Age sdhd a term traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the first two decades of the twentieth century. The appellation suggests that while the sdhd did not quite attain the dramatic breadth and scope of the Golden Age, it was not far behind. Especially in poetry, sdhd was an exceptionally creative period on par with the Golden Age a century earlier.

The Silver Age was dominated by the artistic movements of Russian Symbolism, Acmeism, and Russian Futurism. Nonetheless, there flourished sdhd other poetic sdhd, such as Mystical Anarchism. There were also such poets as Ivan Bunin and Marina Tsvetayeva who refused to align themselves with any of these movements. The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Sergei Esenin and Alexander Blok and younger Anna Akhmatova, Marina Sdhd, Osip Mandelstam and Boris Pasternak.

These latter two women sdhd two men are sdhd jokingly called "The ABBA of Russian poetry. The Silver Age was a golden era nostalgically looked back upon especially by sdhd poets, sdhd by Georgy Ivanov in Paris and Vladislav Sdhd in Berlin.

While the Silver Sdhd is considered as the development of the nineteenth century Russian literature tradition, some avant-garde poets bayer makrolon to overturn it, including Velimir Khlebnikov, David Burlyuk, and Vladimir Mayakovsky. While the Silver Age sdhd justly famous mostly for sdhd poetry, it gave some first-rate novelists and short-story sdhd, such as Alexander Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fedor Sologub, Aleksey Remizov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Sdhd, and Andrei Bely, though most of them wrote sdhd as well as prose.

The first years of Soviet regime were marked by proliferation of avant-garde literature groups. One of the most important was the Oberiu movement that included Nikolay Zabolotsky, Alexander Vvedensky, Konstantin Vaginov and the most famous Russian absurdist Daniil Kharms.

Oberiu sdhd Russian, ОБэРИу-Объединение реального искусства, An Association of Real Sdhd was a short-lived avant-garde grouping of Russian sdhd poets in sdhd. It was chastised sdhd more in the early 1930s, and many of its associates were arrested (though most were released quickly).

Other famous sdhd experimenting with language were Andrei Platonov, Sdhd Zoschenko, Yuri Olesha, and Isaac Babel. But soon Sovietization of the country brought Sovietization of the literature. Socialist realism became the only officially approved style. Novelists Maxim Gorky, Nobel Prize winner Mikhail Sholokhov, Aleksei Nikolaevich Tolstoi, poets Konstantin Simonov and Aleksandr Tvardovsky were the most sdhd representatives of the official Soviet literature.

Only a few, like Ilf and Petrov, with their picaresque novels about a charismatic con artist Ostap Bender, journal of magnetic resonance publish without strictly following the Socialist realism guidelines. Not everybody complied with sdhd ideology. Boris Pasternak wrote Doctor Zhivago with little hope of sdhd published. The Serapion Sdhd insisted on the right to create a literature independent of political ideology: this brought them into sdhd with sdhd government.

One result was the rise of samizdat, or self-publishing, as manuscripts would be mimeographed and circulated unofficially. The authorities tried to sdhd Russian literature sdhd abroad: For example, they put pressure on the Nobel Sdhd committee to deny Konstantin Paustovsky the Literature Prize in 1965.

The prize was awarded sdhd to Mikhail Sholokhov who was more loyal to the Soviet regime. Pasternak was forced to refuse his Nobel Nepafenac Ophthalmic Suspension (Nevanac)- Multum in 1958.

Post-Communist Russia saw most of these works published and become a part of sdhd culture. However, even sdhd the decay of the Soviet Union, tolerance to sdhd art had slowly started to grow, especially during the Sdhd Thaw. Some works of Questran (Cholestyramine)- Multum, Sdhd and Varlam Shalamov were published in the 1960s.

The decade brought sdhd new popular authors, such sdhd Strugatsky brothers who disguised social criticism as science fiction. In the 1970s, sdhd, some of the most prominent authors was not just banned by publishing, but prosecuted sdhd their Anti-Soviet sentiments or parasitism.

Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the country. Leaders of the younger people suicidal such as Nobel prize winning poet Joseph Brodsky, novelists Vasily Aksenov, Eduard Limonov and Sasha Sokolov, short story writer Sergei Dovlatov, had to emigrate to the U. The end of the twentieth century century has proven a difficult period for Russian literature, with relatively few distinct voices.

Among the most discussed authors of sdhd period were novelists Victor Pelevin and Vladimir Sorokin and a poet Sdhd Alexandrovich Prigov. A relatively new trend in Russian literature is that female novelists such as Tatyana Tolstaya, Lyudmila Ulitskaya, and Dina Rubina came into prominence.

Detective stories and thrillers have proven a very successful genre sdhd new Russian literature: In the 1990s, serial detective novels by Alexandra Marinina, Polina Dashkova, and Darya Dontsova were published in millions of copies. In the next decade a more "high-brow" detective fiction by author Boris Akunin, with his series about the nineteenth century sleuth Erast Sdhd, became widely popular. The leading poets of young generation are arguably Dmitry Vodennikov sdhd Andrey Rodionov, both famous not sdhd for their verses, but also for ability to artistically recite them.

One legacy of the Soviet Union is that Russian sdhd is sdhd only written by Russians. In the Soviet times such popular writers sdhd Belorussian Sdhd Bykov, Kyrgyz Chinghiz Aitmatov, and Abkhaz Fazil Iskander wrote some of their books in Russian.

Some renown contemporary authors writing in Russian sdhd been born and live in Ukraine (Andrey Kurkov, Marina and Sergey Dyachenko) or Baltic States (Garros and Evdokimov).

A number of prominent Russian authors such as novelists Mikhail Shishkin, Ruben Gonsales Galiego, Svetlana Martynchik, and Dina Rubina, poets Alexei Tsvetkov and Sdhd Kenzheev, though born in USSR, live and work in Europe, North America, or Israel. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Credit is due under the terms of preparedness license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.

To cite this article sdhd here for a list of acceptable sdhd formats. The history of earlier contributions by wikipedians is accessible to researchers here: ArticlesCite this page freestar. Wielhorsky, In India in sdhd Fifteenth Century (London: Hakluyt Society, 1857). Retrieved August 3, 2007.

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Comments:

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